Saturday, May 21, 2016
ADSS 1.180 French Ambassador to the Holy See, to the Secretariat of State.
Reference: AES 5986/39
Location and date: Rome, 02.09.1939
Summary statement: French gov’t thanks the Pope for his message.
As the French Ambassador (1) has intimated to His Eminence the Cardinal Secretary of State, he was charged with acquainting the Government of the Republic with His Holiness’s peace message of 31 August. (2)
The French Ambassador has the honour of informing the Secretariat of State of His Holiness that the French Government, keenly aware of the lofty idealism inspiring the Sovereign Pontiff’s moving message, conveys its respectful expressions of gratitude to His Holiness.
The French Government has unreservedly supported all the peace initiatives made in the last days of August.
It earnestly hopes that these worthy efforts will accomplish their object and pave the way for peace based on justice and honour among all free peoples.
(1) François Charles-Roux (1879-1961), French Ambassador to the Holy See 1932-40.
(2) ADSS 1.160.
ADSS 1.179 Valerio Valeri, France, to Luigi Maglione, Sec State.
Reference: Report number 9017/282, (AES 6346/39)
Location and date: Paris, 02.09.1939
Summary statement: Pope’s message received with sympathy; general mobilisation announced; press censorship announced; evacuation of Paris planned.
The news of the last initiative of the Holy See in favour of peace has not failed to create, in every class of people and without distinction of colour, a profound and favourable impression and it is still hoped that a supreme effort of the Holy Father could yet prevent what has now become irreparable, humanely speaking.
In the meantime, following the opening of hostilities on the German-Polish borer, France too, as Your Eminence knows, has decreed a general mobilisation starting from today at midnight and this mobilisation is being put into effect everywhere with increased speed.
Four days ago, a Ministerial decree introduced censorship all over the country and, following this measure, all news printed by the newspapers of broadcast by radio is under the complete control of the authorities.
The population, from what one can see, has accepted the military measures as well as those of public order with great calm. Following repeated appeals by the Government, the evacuation of children, women and all people who do not have an occupation considered important are being evacuated from Paris. They are leaving town by every means at their disposal and are going to various places in the provinces. At the same time all measures have been taken for the passive defence of the city.
ADSS 1.78 Francesco Borgongini Duca, Italy, to Luigi Maglione, Sec State
Reference: Report number 7147/39, (AES 6032/39)
Location and date: Rome, 01.09.1939
Summary statement: Reports meetings with Guido Buffarini – Italy will not enter the war; US Ambassador – Italy will remain neutral and eventually join the Allies; and For Min Galeazzo Ciano and Mussolini are working for peace.
1. Last Tuesday, 29 August, I had an audience with His Excellency Buffarini (1), as I said I had the honour to relate in my other reports. (2) I was able to learn from him that for the moment Italy has no intention whatsoever of entering the war, even if it breaks out, between Germany and Poland. He agreed with me that war is won by those who keep out of out; he then added these exact words: “This time, before we enter the war, we shall ask for firm guarantees”; these words made me think that they might intend joining the war, at a later date, on the same side as in the first world war.
He added, and I do not know if that was his own thought or whether it emanated from a higher source, that Hitler did not believe in Britain and France’s intervention but that he anticipated that he would defeat Poland in three weeks.
Buffarini extolled the Holy Father saying: “He is exactly the Pope we need”.
He also expressed his satisfaction with the recent measures regarding Catholic Action, a solution which corresponded in every way with his personal thoughts, because the Bishops are completely trusted by the State.
2. I could only see Ambassador Philips of the United States at 15.00hrs yesterday as he was out to luncheon. (3) I gave him Your Eminence’s note according to your orders just received from you. (4) The Ambassador thanked me for the interest taken by the Holy See in approaching him and promised me he would immediately send a telegram to Washington. He then added the following details which I relate, although I am sure that Your Eminence has been acquainted with them by various other sources.
He told me that the previous evening, 30 August, Ciano (5) told him that all was finished. “The poor chap” continued Phillips, “was depressed”; Hitler’s ultimatum to Poland was expiring in fact that very evening; that is, the order was to send a plenipotentiary to Berlin before the evening of the 30th. To this ultimatum Poland had in the meantime replied with a general mobilisation. During the conversation, Ciano phoned to Attolico (6) to ask if this plenipotentiary had arrived or not, and Attolico replied “Up to now nobody has arrived”, to which Ciano said by way of a conclusion: “There is nothing else to do”. Ambassador Phillips was saying to me that he had been agitated the entire night and the next morning he tried anxiously to find out if war had broken out; and when informed that hostilities had not started, he saw a new ray of hope, which was growing in his heart from hour to hour, “because one can see Hitler is beginning to hesitate”.
I asked him if, in his opinion, Italy would enter the war. He replied, with certainty, in the negative and that Italy would lose no time in declaring her neutrality. He told me also in confidence that, later on, Italy would join Britain and France. This decision would come about as a consequence of a future ultimatum by Britain and France to Italy. I begged to point out that this would not be a good way to reach this end, because persuasion and not violence should be used. He relied: “I expressed myself badly in saying ‘ultimatum’, I could not find the right word”. According to him, however, Italy will not fight for Germany.
In the end I asked him who would be in charge of the Palazzo Farnese in case of war with France, and he said: “The United States”; and that he knew this, having had the information from Ambassador Poncet (7), although the United States had not yet sent him direct instructions.
A last work. He told me confidentially that up to noon Poncet was still a pessimist.
3. Yesterday evening at 18.00hrs, I was a last received by Ciano, whom I found very depressed and tired. He had been at the Ministry that morning since 07.00hrs and had not even gone out for lunch. (8) “I have eaten a plate of spaghetti on this table”, he said. I enquired about the ultimatum to Poland and how it was that Hitler had not yet started hostilities. He replied that he as well as Mussolini were fighting as lions to precent the conflict and in the morning (Thursday 31.08.1939) Italy had exerted a strong influence on Germany. (9)
I spoke to him about the last earnest appeal of the Holy Father made that very day. He knew about it having already having spoken with Count Pignatti (10) and he told me: “Italy, of course, supports these interventions with all her power”, and he begged me to tell His Holiness that “since Salzburg [Ciano] does nothing but fight for peace”.
He explained to me also that the various measures taken in Italy did not mean a willingness to go to war and he stated that they had been taken to show that something was being done.
I asked him for how long we should remain in the tremendous suspense. He replied: “Between today and tomorrow.”
On my way out I said: “Whatever happens I hope that Italy will not make a move”. The Minister replied with a smile, “That is another matter; before making a move Italy will think about it very carefully, calmly and with great attention”, and he continued to smile.
(1) Guido Buffarini (1895-1945), Undersecretary of the Interior Ministry 1940-43.
(2) Not published in ADSS.
(3) William Phillips (1878-1968), United States Ambassador to Italy 1936-41.
(4) ADSS 1.160. Borgongini Duca had been instructed to give Phillips a copy of the Pope’s appeal. Phillips sent it to President Roosevelt.
(5) Galeazzo Ciano (1903-1944), Italian Foreign Minister 1936-43.
(6) Bernardo Attolico (1880-1942), Italian Ambassador to Germany 1935-39.
(7) Andre Francois-Poncet (1887-1978), French Ambassador to Italy 1938-40.
(8) According to his Diary (Diario I, pp 154-55) Ciano spent the day of 31.08.1939 in fear of war breaking out between Italy and the Western Powers.
(9) This most likely refers to the communication made by the Italian Ambassador in Berlin, saying that Mussolini had got into contact with London to say that nothing could save the peace except an offer of Danzig to Germany. Mussolini then pressed Hitler to leave time for a meeting of the interested powers.
(10) Bonifacio Pignatti (1877-1957), Italian Ambassador to the Holy See 1935-39.
ADSS 1.177 Clemente Micara, Belgium, to Luigi Maglione, Sec State.
Reference: Telegram – without number, (AES 5968/39)
Location and date: Brussels, 01.09.1939
Summary statement: Belgian Prime Minister (1) promises to do his best to support the Pope’s efforts for peace.
Yesterday’s coded message received. (2) I have immediately spoke with the Prime Minister about Your Eminence’s action, and he promises he will do his utmost to support it, if and when circumstances permit.
He has again expressed his gratitude and admiration for the Holy Father’s efforts in favour of peace.
(1) Hubert Pierlot (1883-1963), Prime Minister of Belgium 1939-40 and then with Government-in-exile in London 1940-45.
(2) ADSS 1.160
ADSS 1.176 German Ambassador (1) to the Holy See, to Secretariat of State.
Reference: AES 5988/39
Location and date: 01.09.1939
Summary statement: Hitler thanks the Pope for his message of 31.08 but Polish provocations have made peace impossible.
The Führer thanks His Holiness for His message of yesterday’s date. (2) As His Holiness will have learnt from the messages received in the meantime, events have unfortunately rendered impossible the peaceful solution, which Germany had hoped for. The Führer had waited two days for the arrival of a Polish emissary for the peaceful settlement of the German-Polish conflict. As a reply to his efforts, Poland ordered general mobilisation. Furthermore, the Poles had yesterday committed of still further unheard-of frontier violations which this time involved regular Polish troops entering German territory. These unbearable provocations have caused the Führer to take steps that would also ensure that same peace and quiet at Germany’s Eastern frontier, which Germany requires and which obtains at her other frontiers. (3)
(1) Diego von Bergen (1872-1944), German Ambassador to the Holy See, 1920-43.
(2) ADSS 1.160
(3) This is a reference to the German organised attack on the Gleiwitz radio station during the previous night to provide a “justifiable” excuse to order the invasion of Poland.