Sunday, June 30, 2013

ADSS Volume 4 June 1940-June 1941

Of the 433 document in ADSS 4 only eight deal directly with Jews and Jewish issues.  The overage of documents in Volume 4 extends to the widening scope of the war in Europe from the fall of France in June 1940 up to the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.  Most of the references to Jews in this volume are indirect and often come from insults lobbied at the pope or members of the Catholic Church in different parts of the world.

Documents of particular interest include:

ADSS 4.68: 03.09.1940. Cardinal Maglione wrote to the Apostolic Delegate in the US, Amleto Cicognani concerning attacks made against the archbishop of New York, Francis Spellman (1889-1967) by Roberto Farinacci (1892-1945) in Regime Fascista.  Farinacci was an outspoken anti-Catholic who often accused the Church of being in league with the Jews.  This document outlines such a case.  Farinacci claimed that Jews owned 75% of church property in New York and Spellman was their agent.   In subsequent documents Spellman indicated he would not "take the bait" and would just ignore Farinacci.  Later that month Farinacci claimed the archbishop was in the pay of the Jews (ADSS 4.98) 

ADSS 4.74: 08.09.1940.  Maglione again wrote to Cicognani, this time relaying Farinaci's criticism that the pope was not in agreement with the fascists in "the fight against Judaism".

Attacks in Regime Fascista continued throughout most of the summer.  Accusations of the church in general and the pope in particular being concerned about the Jews or under Jewish influence were common.  See ADSS 4.60; 61; 66; 68; 71; 74; 77; 79; 88; 98; 119; 121; 124; 226; 387; 395; 401; 402; 419; 426.

ADSS 4.107: 04.10.1940.  Nuncio to France, Valerio Valeri wrote to Maglione where comment was made on the imminent implementation of anti-Jewish laws throughout Vichy France.  In his remarks on several conversations with senior Vichy officials, the nuncio commented on the general accepted belief that "without doubt, unfortunately, the Jews have contributed as much as they could to the outbreak of the war".

ADSS 4.124: 25.10.1940.  Maglione's notes commented on the article in Regime Fascista that marvelled at the silence of the Holy See with regard to the passing of anti-Jewish laws in France.

ADSS 4.209: 24.12.1940.  Pius XII's Christmas Address made specific mention of "non-Aryans" along with others suffering because of the war.

ADSS 4.238: 17.01.1941.  In the course of a report to Maglione on attempts to secure a new bishop for the diocese of Budejovice in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Orsenigo mentioned a report he had received of a priest praying publicly from the pulpit for Jews.

ADSS 4.291: 19.03.1941. Cesare Orsenigo, nuncio to Germany wrote to Maglione indicating he was attempting to find out what had happened in Amsterdam when the Gestapo launched a major action against Dutch Jews and various Christian clergy who had spoken out against Nazi antisemitism.  

ADSS 4.393: 08.06.1941.  King Peter II of Yugoslavia, exiled in Jerusalem, wrote to Pius XII appealing for papal help for the Jews and Serbs who were being systematically exterminated by the Croatian regime.  The king's tone is blunt.

ADSS 4.395: 10.06.1941.  Francesco Borgongini Duca, nuncio to Italy wrote to Maglione describing a meeting between himself, Farinaci and the Italian foreign minister, Gian Galeazzo Ciano in an attempt to end Farinaci's attacks on the church.  The nuncio defended the church's teaching regarding baptised Jews - they are Catholics.

Several other themes are worth noting:

Accusations that the Holy See was anti-German: 201; 211; 367.

Accusations that the Holy See was anti-British: 122; 123; 141; 152; 171.

German complaints that Radio Vaticano was either violating Vatican neutrality or reporting in a manner hostile to German interests: 102; 118; 126; 128;  131; 132; 134; 136; 140; 143; 147; 150; 151; 154; 160; 162; 179; 200; 332; 374; 384; 396; 406; 430.

The visit to Rome by the Croatian dictator Ante Pavelic has been covered before.

I will post several translations of some documents shortly.

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